Referee Test

Welcome to the Referee Test!

This 2020 online Referee Test is Phase I of the USAPA Referee Training/Certification program. It tests your knowledge of the USAPA/IFP Official Tournament Rulebook and the USAPA officiating best practice procedures contained in the Referee Handbook and Line Judge Guide. It is recommended that you study these training materials prior to taking the test. As a prerequisite for the Referee Certification program, you must achieve a passing score of 90% or better on this test.

The test consists of 75 questions with a 60-minute time limit. The 75 questions are drawn from a pool of 140+ questions. The questions are shuffled at the beginning of each test, so no two tests are exactly the same. In addition, new questions are frequently added.

Pick a time to take the quiz when you can complete all the questions without interruption because the test will automatically close after 60 minutes. The test will also close when you click the "Submit" button at the end of the test, so answer all questions before submitting.

Upon completion, your score will be displayed along with your answers and the correct answer for each question you answered incorrectly. You will also receive a follow-up email showing your test score.

Note: If a test question has a "NEW in 2020" notation, this refers to either a new rule being added, or that an existing rule was revised

Good luck!


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1. (#82)
A player wishing to signify an appeal during a rally may do so by raising her paddle or non-paddle hand above her head.
2. (#51)
When the referee calls the score, the 10-second count begins. If the server asks if they are the correct server, the referee should recall the score and begin a new 10-second count.
3. (#102)
It is a fault if a player deliberately carries the ball on their paddle.
4. (#128)
During the serve, the player must release the ball before paddle contact.
5. (#58)
Team A calls a time-out. Both teams lay their paddles on the court and proceed to their water bottles. After 20 seconds have elapsed, team A tells you they are ready to resume play. What should you do?
6. (#1)
If a served ball touches the net and then hits the receiver's partner, who is clearly standing outside of receiver's service area, what is the call?
7. (#84)
A technical warning will always result in a loss of rally or point.
8. (#114)
After a rally has ended, the referee notices that a player deliberately steps on a ball and crushes it. A technical warning should be issued to the player.
9. (#54) (NEW in 2020)
At the start of each game, the starting server begins the serve from the side of the court dictated by the score.
10. (#85)
As an aid to maintaining awareness of which team is serving, the clipboard should be held so the "clip" (clamp) end of the board is pointing toward the serving team when the score is recorded.
11. (#61)
How much time is allowed to switch ends during a game?
12. (#35)
A ball is hit at an angle, bounces in the court, and travels beyond the sidelines. The receiver manages to return the ball, hitting a low shot (below net level) around and outside the post into the opponent’s court.
13. (#47)
If a player or team is out of time-outs and the referee determines that an equipment change or adjustment is necessary for fair and safe continuation of the match, the referee may:
14. (#78)
A point made from an incorrect service position or an incorrect server will not be retained until the next serve has occurred.
15. (#36) (NEW in 2020)
A team may change the starting server between games. If no notification is given to the referee before the next game starts, a fault will declared when the offending player serves or receives.  After the fault has been applied, the offending team will decide which player will be the starting server and notify the referee.
16. (#113)
A fault will be declared if the referee has called the score and the server has started their service motion if:
17. (#69)
Technical fouls can be awarded in between games of a match.
18. (#127)
Team A hits a deep ball to Team Z. After the ball bounces, player Z1 calls "Out". Immediately after the "Out" call by Z1, player Z2 yells "It's in" and hits the ball back to Team A. Team A returns the ball and the rally continues.
Which of the following are true?
19. (#65) (NEW in 2020)
Hitting the ball into the player's side of the net without the ball crossing over to the opponent's side is a fault. The fault is declared the moment the ball hits the ground.
20. (#57)
Player A volleys a ball from just behind the non-volley zone line. During the follow through, their paddle strikes their partner’s shoulder, causing the partner to fall into the non-volley zone. This is a fault.
21. (#52) (NEW in 2020)
After the score is called, if the serving team changes service courts causing the receiving team to be out of position, the receiving team shall be allowed time to reposition. A new score shall be called and a new 10-second count will begin.
22. (#11) (NEW in 2020)
To be considered legal, a serve must be made so that contact with the ball is not made above waist level (the navel), the arm must be moving in an upward arc and the paddle head must not be higher than the server's wrist when it strikes the ball.
23. (#121) (NEW in 2020)
The referee calls an incorrect score. The server starts to wipe their glasses and does not serve. The receiver raises their paddle and says "You called the wrong score." The referee confirms that the incorrect score was called. The referee should call a fault on the player for signaling Not Ready after the score has been called in its entireity.
24. (#125)
The moment the ball is struck to be served, the server is allowed to step on the imaginary extension line of the sideline, or the imaginary extension line of the centerline, as long as they are not touching an area "outside" or "beyond" the imaginary extension lines.
25. (#43)
If anything a player is wearing or carrying lands on the court, it becomes part of the court. Therefore:
26. (#72)
The team that wins the first choice of side, serve or receive, may defer the choice to the opponents.
27. (#70)
A ball hit around the post strikes you (the referee) in the leg. Since it appears that it would have landed in bounds, what is the call?
28. (#46) (NEW in 2020)
Even if all players in a match agree and request to remove a referee, the Tournament Director retains final discretionary authority on whether to remove the referee.
29. (#86)
A player hits a sharp cross-court shot that bounces in the opponent's non-volley zone. The ball then travels beyond the court and hits a net post leg (a permanent object) before the opponents can make a play on the ball. Which statement is true?
30. (#56)
A player's shoe comes off during a rally. At end of the rally, the player hurries to put their shoe back on while the partner and the opponents wait patiently. The player should be required to use a time-out.
31. (#130)
A wheelchair player may volley a ball in the non-volley zone if the smaller, front wheels only are touching the non-volley zone.
32. (#3) (NEW in 2020)
Any player may indicate "Not Ready" prior to the start of the score being called.
33. (#109)
If a player has been issued a technical foul for intentionally throwing their paddle, a subsequent technical warning issued for profanity will result in a match forfeiture.
34. (#95)
Midway through game 2, the partners swing their paddles at the ball at the same time and one player's finger gets hit by his partner's paddle and is injured. After a fifteen-minute medical time-out, the player still isn't able to grip his paddle and can't continue to play. The match will be forfeited and awarded to the opponent(s).
35. (#16) (NEW in 2020)
In a match with line judges, if the officiating team cannot make a line call, the rally shall be replayed unless all the players agree that the ball was "in".
36. (#87)
A hinder called by the referee, or a valid hinder called by a player, will result in a dead ball and a replay.
37. (#64)
When should you give players a 15-second notice before you call the score and apply the 10-second rule?
38. (#134)
When a rally is over, a player may appeal an opponent's line call to the referee until what point in time?
39. (#123)
Player A volleys a ball that hits the top of the net and then falls over and hits the horizontal bar. Just before the ball hits the horizontal bar, the opponent, Player Z, crosses the plane of the net. The referee should call a fault on Player Z since the crossing of the plane occurred before the ball hit the horizontal bar.
40. (#23) (NEW in 2020)
A ball can be hit twice but only during an unintentional, continuous, single-direction stroke, by one player. If the stroke is not continuous, not single-direction, or the ball is struck by a second player, it is a fault.
41. (#73)
After the score is called by the referee, the server is required to wait for the receiver to be ready.
42. (#110)
The referee calls the correct score. The server starts wiping her glasses and does not start her service motion. The server's partner asks, "Is she the correct server?"
The server's partner did not commit a fault by asking the referee about the correct server.
43. (#103)
It is a fault if any player asks the referee to confirm the score after the score has been called and the server has started their service motion. (The referee called the score correctly)
44. (#79) (NEW in 2020)
Players wishing to give Not Ready signals shall use one of the following: 1)Raise their paddle above their head, 2) Raise their non-paddle hand above their head and 3), , ,?
45. (#42)
The correct receiver is the only player who may return a served ball. If the incorrect receiver returns the ball, it is a point for the serving team.
46. (#104)
In a match with a referee, the referee and/or player(s) may call a service "let". If the referee determines that a service let, called by a player, did not occur, a fault will be called against the offending player.
47. (#53)
You call the score and the server serves. The ball lands cleanly in the service court, but the receiver catches it and questions the score you called. You look at the scoresheet and realize the receiver is correct -- you called an incorrect score. The server argues that their team should be awarded a point because the receiver failed to return the ball. What do you do?
48. (#14)
When time-out is called the referee should:
49. (#137)
When a player/team receives their first technical warning, it shall not result in a loss of rally or point awarded and shall be accompanied by a brief explanation of the reason for the warning. Also, the called technical warning shall have no effect on service change or side out.
50. (#77)
A player may step on the non-volley zone line or enter the non-volley zone at any time except when that player is in the act of volleying the ball. There is no violation if your partner is standing in the non-volley zone. A player may enter the non-volley zone before or after returning a ball that bounced.
51. (#63) (NEW in 2020)
In sanctioned play without a referee, a player is allowed to call service foot faults (as well as NVZ faults) on the opponent. If the opponent disagrees with the fault call, then a replay shall be called.
52. (#91)
A player standing behind the non-volley zone line stretches low to return the ball before it bounces. After starting her swing, her paddle scrapes the NVZ court surface just before making contact with the ball. This is a fault because the paddle touched the non-volley zone during the swing.
53. (#118) (NEW in 2020)
After game 1, Team A receives a technical foul and a point is awarded to Team B. At the start of game 2, Team B is receiving serve. Team B's starting server's partner would receive serve from the right/even court with a score of "0-1-2".
54. (#21)
Any ball that cannot be called "out" must be presumed to be "in."
55. (#83)
Line judge "Out" calls should be promptly signaled by voice and hand signals, regardless of how obvious they may seem.
56. (#80)
A player may step on the non-volley line or enter the non-volley zone at any time when that player is in the act of volleying the ball.
57. (#94) (NEW in 2020)
Hydration breaks are now permitted by the referee. The referee will quickly allow players to hydrate as long as the flow of the game is not adversely impacted.
58. (#49)
In a high-profile singles gold medal match, the referee determines the receiver should be ready and calls the score to begin the 10-second count. The server asks the referee to repeat the score, which she does. The referee continues counting. The server fails to serve before the 10 seconds expires. What is the call?
59. (#131)
A wheelchair server, from a stationary position, is allowed one push before striking the ball.
60. (#66)
You are refereeing a game when a player wearing glasses falls face down on the court. The player immediately gets up and you see that her glasses are broken and she has scratched her face and is bleeding. You should:
61. (#24) (NEW in 2020)
Players may call faults on themselves or line calls to their disadvantage during or after the completion of a rally.
62. (#8) (NEW in 2020)
A ball in play that contacts a permanent object after it has bounced on the court will result in a dead ball and the player who hit the ball shall win the rally.
63. (#93)
You are refereeing a match when it appears a player may have twisted her ankle. She asks for a medical time-out. You should:
64. (#32)
Appeals to the referee regarding judgment calls (e.g., double bounce, double hits) will be decided by the referee. The referee may consult line judges or players to decide the outcome of the appeal.
65. (#34)
A player standing outside the non-volley zone (NVZ) volleys the ball, but begins to lose her balance. To prevent stepping into the NVZ, she jumps over the corner and into the out of bounds area, then touches a net post (which is also out of bounds) while the ball is still in play.
66. (#126)
When doubles partners disagree on a line call,  (one calls the ball "out" and the other calls the ball 'in") either player may appeal to the referee for a ruling. The appeal to the referee can be made AFTER both players have made their line calls.
67. (#74) (NEW in 2020)
After the start of the score being called, a "Not Ready" signals will be ignored. This means a player showing a Not Ready signal after the score has started to be called will neither be honored nor punished.
68. (#71)
A team calls a time-out, puts their paddles on the court and walk towards their water bottles. You glance at the scoresheet and confirm that they have no time-outs remaining (you had advised them of that earlier). What should you do?
69. (#50) (NEW in 2020)
The definition of "Live Ball/In Play" is - The point in time when the referee starts to call the score.
70. (#7)
A player using objectionable or demeaning language directed at another person shall incur a technical warning or a technical foul, depending upon its severity. Once a technical warning has been issued, the second offense will result in a technical foul.
71. (#38)
A player mutters a curse word (heard by opponents) when they commit an unforced error. The referee should: (Choose the best answer)
72. (#18) (NEW in 2020)
Any malfunction of a net system during play shall be considered a hinder.
73. (#117)
If a referee overrules a line judge call, a replay will be issued other than the listed exceptions.
74. (#106)
During a rally, a player jumps across the non-volley zone (NVZ) to get closer to the net for an attempted volley, but never makes contact with the NVZ. In doing so, the player's leg crosses the plane of the net before the player strikes the ball. The referee should?
75. (#2)
The event-provided starting server form of identification must be worn:

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