Referee Test

Welcome to the Referee Test!

This 2020 online Referee Test is Phase I of the USAPA Referee Training/Certification program. It tests your knowledge of the USAPA/IFP Official Tournament Rulebook and the USAPA officiating best practice procedures contained in the Referee Handbook and Line Judge Guide. It is recommended that you study these training materials prior to taking the test. As a prerequisite for the Referee Certification program, you must achieve a passing score of 90% or better on this test.

The test consists of 75 questions with a 60-minute time limit. The 75 questions are drawn from a pool of 140+ questions. The questions are shuffled at the beginning of each test, so no two tests are exactly the same. In addition, new questions are frequently added.

Pick a time to take the quiz when you can complete all the questions without interruption because the test will automatically close after 60 minutes. The test will also close when you click the "Submit" button at the end of the test, so answer all questions before submitting.

Upon completion, your score will be displayed along with your answers and the correct answer for each question you answered incorrectly. You will also receive a follow-up email showing your test score.

Note: If a test question has a "NEW in 2020" notation, this refers to either a new rule being added, or that an existing rule was revised

Good luck!


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1. (#64)
Per the Referee Handbook, when should you give players a 15-second notice before you call the score and apply the 10-second rule?
2. (#3) (NEW in 2020)
Any player may indicate "Not Ready" prior to the start of the score being called.
3. (#54) (NEW in 2020)
At the start of each game, the starting server will always begin the serve from the right-hand court.
4. (#104)
In a match with a referee, the referee and/or player(s) may call a service "let". If the referee determines that a service let, called by a player, did not occur, a fault will be called against the offending player.
5. (#11) (NEW in 2020)
To be considered legal, a serve must be made so that contact with the ball is not made above waist level (the navel), the arm must be moving in an upward arc and the paddle head must not be higher than the server's wrist when it strikes the ball.
6. (#36) (NEW in 2020)
A team may change the starting server between games. If no notification is given to the referee before the next game starts, a fault will declared when the offending player serves or receives.  After the fault has been applied, the offending team will decide which player will be the starting server and notify the referee.
7. (#101) (NEW in 2020)
After game 1, Team B receives a technical foul and a point is awarded to Team A. At the start of game 2, the starting server for Team A would begin serving the game from the left/odd court with a starting score of "1-0-2"
8. (#14)
When time-out is called the referee should:
9. (#122) (NEW in 2020)
After the score has been called, the server steps from the right court to the left court to serve the ball. The receiver raises their paddle giving a "Not Ready" signal and asks the referee to wait so they can reposition correctly. What should the referee do?
10. (#137)
When a player/team receives their first technical warning, it shall not result in a loss of rally or point awarded and shall be accompanied by a brief explanation of the reason for the warning. Also, the called technical warning shall have no effect on service change or side out.
11. (#141)
An athletic player runs fast toward the net and jumps to hit a volley. (The player hits the ball while on his side of the net.)  After hitting the ball, the jumping player then goes over the net and lands in the opponent's court. IF THE BALL WAS DEAD BEFORE the jumping player touched the opponent's court, which of the following is true?
12. (#111)
If a line judge makes a line call, the referee may immediately overrule the call without an appeal from any player.
13. (#115)
When a time-out has been called, a referee should NOT request players to place their paddles of the ground. This is considered coaching.
14. (#80)
A player may enter the non-volley zone at any time except when that that player is volleying the ball.
15. (#13) (New in 2020)
After a rally has ended, Team A does not make a line call and asks for Team B's assistance.  One player on Team B says the ball was "in" and his partner says the ball was "out".  Which of the following are true?
16. (#133)
The words "continuous, single-direction stroke" are written and applied to which of the following rules:
17. (#109)
If a player has been issued a technical foul for intentionally throwing their paddle, a subsequent technical warning issued for profanity will result in a match forfeiture.
18. (#96) (NEW in 2020)
Technical warnings and technical fouls may be assessed any time during a match while the players are at the court.
19. (#47)
If a player or team is out of time-outs and the referee determines that an equipment change or adjustment is necessary for fair and safe continuation of the match, the referee may:
20. (#31)
The referee is responsible for all decisions related to procedural and judgment calls during the match. If the players make a line call and there is a disputed line call, the players may request that the referee determine the outcome of the line call. If the referee cannot make a clear line call, the player's call stands. If doubles partners disagree (one says "in" and partner says "out") and appeal to the referee, if the referee cannot make a clear call, the ball will be declared "in".
21. (#29)
The Tournament Director of a USAPA sanctioned tournament does not need prior USAPA approval to impose a local rule or interpretation of any USAPA rule.
22. (#24) (NEW in 2020)
Players may call faults on themselves or line calls to their disadvantage during or after the completion of a rally.
23. (#112)
After the score has been called, the referee may use a subtle hand motion to indicate each second of the 10-second count.
24. (#127)
Team A hits a deep ball to Team B.  After the ball bounces, player B1 calls "Out". Immediately after the "Out" call, player B2 yells "It's in!" and hits the ball back to Team A. Team A returns the ball and the rally continues.
Which of the following are true?
25. (#100)
During a rally, Player A hits a high lob that bounces in the opponent's non-volley zone (NVZ). After bouncing in the NVZ, the ball rebounds upward and strikes the horizontal bar on the temporary net system and interferes with the player's ability to make a play on the ball. The referee should call a "let" and proceed with a replay.
26. (#138) (NEW in 2020)
In a match with a referee, after a rally has completed, a player notices that the ball is cracked and steps on it and crushes it. What should the referee do if they saw this happen?
27. (#105)
When an end switch occurs, the referee is permitted to remind players that no coaching is allowed.
28. (#86)
A player hits a sharp cross-court shot that bounces in the opponent's non-volley zone. The ball then travels beyond the court and hits a net post leg (a permanent object) before the opponents can make a play on the ball. Which statement is true?
29. (#81)
A player may stay inside the non-volley zone to return balls that bounce.
30. (#32)
Appeals to the referee regarding judgment calls (e.g., double bounce, double hits) will be decided by the referee. The referee may consult line judges or players to decide the outcome of the appeal.
31. (#89)
Each team is allowed 3 time-outs in a game to 21.
32. (#28)
When a player intentionally throws her paddle and hits or injures any person, a technical warning will immediately be given to the offender.
33. (#25)
The receiver's partner may stand anywhere on or off their team's side of the court.
34. (#129)
The 2nd bounce for a wheelchair player can be outside the court boundaries.
35. (#17)
Once the game has begun, except during time-outs, any communication between a player and any person not on the court, if determined by the referee to be coaching, shall result in a technical warning to the offending player or team and a verbal warning to spectators. If the communication occurs a second time, it shall result in a technical foul and a point will be awarded to the opponent.
36. (#77)
A player may step on the non-volley zone line or enter the non-volley zone at any time except when that player is in the act of volleying the ball. There is no violation if your partner is standing in the non-volley zone. A player may enter the non-volley zone before or after returning a ball that bounced.
37. (#120)
In games to 21, the change of ends will occur at:
38. (#130)
A wheelchair player may volley a ball in the non-volley zone if the smaller, front wheels only are touching the non-volley zone.
39. (#52) (NEW in 2020)
After the score is called, if the serving team changes service courts causing the receiving team to be out of position, the receiving team shall be allowed time to reposition.  The score will be re-called and a new 10-second count will begin.
40. (#62)
If a player is accidentally injured during a rally, the referee should interrupt and stop the rally immediately.
41. (#55)
Line judge responsibilities include, but are not limited to:
42. (#74) (NEW in 2020)
After the start of the score being called, a "Not Ready" signal will be ignored. This means a player showing a Not Ready signal after the score has started to be called,  will neither be honored nor punished.
43. (#66)
You are refereeing a game when a player wearing glasses falls face down on the court. The player immediately gets up and you see that her glasses are broken and she has scratched her face and is bleeding. You should:
44. (#119)
A 2nd technical warning for any offense equates to a technical foul. A point shall be awarded to the non-offending player or team.
45. (#125)
The moment the ball is struck to be served, the server is allowed to step on the imaginary extension line of the sideline, or the imaginary extension line of the centerline, as long as they are not touching an area "outside" or "beyond" the imaginary extension lines.
46. (#124)
At the start of a match, the serving team shall choose a ball. To prevent possible injuries or potential hinder or fault issues, the referee should remove all other balls from the playing area.
47. (#118) (NEW in 2020)
After game 1, Team A receives a technical foul and a point is awarded to Team B. At the start of game 2, Team B is receiving serve. Team B's starting server's partner would receive serve from the right/even court with a score of "0-1-2".
48. (#67)
A player twists his ankle in game 1 of a best-of-three-games match and takes a medical time-out. He is ready to play after eight minutes, and play resumes. Later, in game three of the same match, he scrapes his knee and requests a second medical time-out. What should the referee do?
49. (#2)
The event-provided starting server form of identification must be worn:
50. (#41)
A player is hitting a two-handed stroke (where both hands are in contact with the paddle) when his right hand is hit by the ball below the wrist. The ball is still in play.
51. (#59) (NEW in 2020)
Players are responsible for line calls on their side of the net. If the opponents hit a ball close to a line, the player or team that is supposed to make the line call may appeal to the referee without making a call. Once they appeal to the referee, they lose the right to make any subsequent "in" or "out" call for that rally.
52. (#121) (NEW in 2020)
The referee calls an incorrect score. The server starts to wipe their glasses and does not serve. The receiver raises their paddle and says "You called the wrong score." The referee confirms that the incorrect score was called. The referee should call a fault on the player for signaling "Not Ready" after the score has been called in its entirety.
53. (#123)
Player A volleys a ball that hits the top of the net and then falls over and hits the horizontal bar. Just before the ball hits the horizontal bar, the opponent, Player Z, crosses the plane of the net. The referee should call a fault on Player Z since the crossing of the plane occurred before the ball hit the horizontal bar.
54. (#21)
Any ball that cannot be called "out" must be presumed to be "in."
55. (#39)
An "out" call is made by a player, but her partner disagrees and says the ball was "in". The referee should:
56. (#102)
It is a fault if a player deliberately carries the ball on their paddle.
57. (#50) (NEW in 2020)
The definition of "Live Ball/In Play" is - The point in time when the referee starts to call the score.
58. (#90)
A player leaps above and across the corner of the non-volley zone to get closer to the net.  While in the air, the player smashes a volley for a winning shot.
59. (#72)
The team that wins the first choice of end, serve or receive, may defer the choice to the opponents.
60. (#18) (NEW in 2020)
Any malfunction of a net system during play shall be considered a hinder.
61. (#113)
After the referee has called the score and the server has started their service motion, any player asking to confirm the score will have committed a fault.
62. (#56)
A player's shoe comes off during a rally. At end of the rally, the player hurries to put their shoe back on while the partner and the opponents wait patiently. The player should be required to use a time-out.
63. (#8) (NEW in 2020)
A ball in play that contacts a permanent object after it has bounced on the court will result in a dead ball and the player who hit the ball shall win the rally.
64. (#84)
A technical warning will always result in a loss of rally or point.
65. (#10) (NEW in 2020)
The 2019 Rule 4.M.3, which stated it was a fault if the server missed the ball when trying to hit it, has been removed from the 2020 rulebook.
66. (#69)
Technical fouls can be awarded in between games of a match.
67. (#58)
Team A calls a time-out. Both teams lay their paddles on the court and proceed to their water bottles. After 20 seconds have elapsed, team A tells you they are ready to resume play. What should you do?
68. (#87)
A hinder called by the referee, or a valid hinder called by a player, will result in a dead ball and a replay.
69. (#35)
A ball is hit at an angle, bounces in the court, and travels beyond the sidelines. The receiver manages to return the ball, hitting a low shot (below net level) around and outside the post into the opponent’s court.
70. (#42)
The correct receiver is the only player who may return a served ball. If the incorrect receiver returns the ball, it is a point for the serving team.
71. (#79) (NEW in 2020)
Players wishing to give "Not Ready" signals shall use one of the following: 1) Raise their paddle above their head, 2) Raise their non-paddle hand above their head and 3) , , ,?
72. (#44) (NEW in 2020)
The term First Server refers to a doubles player who will serve from the right court after a side out dependent upon the team's score. 
The term Starting Server is the doubles player designated to serve first at the start of the game. The Starting Server shall wear the visible form of identification.
73. (#140)
The Starting Server shall be required to wear a visible form of identification in sanctioned tournaments.
74. (#57)
Player A volleys a ball from just behind the non-volley zone line. During the follow through, their paddle strikes their partner’s shoulder, causing the partner to fall into the non-volley zone. This is a fault.
75. (#38)
A player mutters a curse word (heard by opponents) when they commit an unforced error. The referee should: (Choose the best answer)

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